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Abbott, C.L. and Hasnip, N. (1997) The Safe Use of Marginal Quality Water in Irrigation: A guide for the water resource planner. HR Wallingford Report OD 140, Wallingford, UK.

This guide has been prepared to help planners successfully integrate marginal quality water supplies in to regional water use strategies. The users are guided through procedures to identify and assess potential marginal quality water supplies, and provided with tools to evaluate the impacts on crops and human health. Management options to maintain long-term sustainable agriculture are presented.


ADB (1996) Towards Effective Water Policy in the Asian and Pacific Region. Proceedings of the Regional Consultation Workshop, ADB, Manila, Volume 1.

These proceedings are the outcome of the Regional Consultation Workshop held at the Asian Development Bank (ADB) in Manila, 10-14 May 1996. The proceedings are divided into three chapters; 1) Introduction, 2) Understanding the water sector and 3) Directing ADB’s role in the water sector. (Volume 2 - Country papers, Volume 3 - Theme papers and comments).


Allen, J.A. (1996) Policy Responses to the Closure of Water Resources: Regional and global issues. Water Policy: Allocation and Management in Practice, Howsam, P. and Carter, R.C. (ed), E & FN Spon/Chapman and Hall, London, UK.

This paper demonstrates that a number of steps have been taken by governments to meet provision of water. The concept of ‘virtual water’ is discussed and examples drawn from the Middle East, where international trade in cereals has enabled the region to import ‘virtual water’. The paper also discusses the pressures on policy makers at the macro, national, level. Highly principled economically and environmentally sound solutions may be advocated but political imperatives often overwhelm the decision-making process.


Backer, P. (1993) La Mondialisation du Management Environnemental: La Dimension GATT. Environ., 3, No. 36. 11-13.

This publication describes the need for responsible environmental management in the world, the strategic importance of European investments, with a particular focus on France.


Black, M. (1994) Mega-slums: The coming sanitary crisis. A special report for WaterAid, UK.

This report examines the rapid pace of urbanisation in the developing world and its implications for access to water and sanitation services by low-income populations. The report argues for a radical overhaul of conventional public health engineering wisdom in technological and service management responses to the growing threat of epidemic in Third World cities.


Biswas, A. K. (1992) Water for Third World Development, a Perspective from the South. Water Resources Development, Vol. 8, No. 1.

Perspectives from the South on water issues, with emphasis on international rivers and environmental considerations, and on where international governance can have major impacts on national water policies and institutions.

Biswas, A. K. (1992) Sustainable Water Development: a Global Perspective. Water International, 17, 68-80.

 This paper provides a global perspective of sustainable water development over the past two decades. The paper covers development and management practices, some of which have had positive environmental impacts, and others which have had negative impacts.

BMZ (1996) Sector Concept: Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation. BMZ, Bonn, Germany.

This sets out the general principles for planning and implementing development co-operation projects for drinking water supply and sanitation. It is a decision-making tool for use in German development co-operation programmes.

BMZ (1998) German Development Co-operation in the Water Sector. BMZ, Bonn, Germany.

This sets out the concepts for development co-operation in the drinking water supply and sanitation sector with particular emphasis on the function and delimitation of the sector, sector goals, project selection and design, and criteria. Types of co-operation and use of bilateral funds are discussed. A number of project examples from a range of countries are included.

Brundtland, G. H. (1987) Our Common Future. The World Commission on Environment and Development.

Landmark publication setting the international agenda on environmental issues, although concern for freshwater resources is a serious omission.

Centre for Water Policy Research (1991) Towards Introducing Markets for Riverine Resources. Report to the Department of Water Resources New South Wales, Kaine, G., Burton, J. and Bryant, M., University of New England, Australia.

The scope for reforming and extending property rights to facilitate the allocation of the resources to the riverine environment is presented. Difficulties due to the shortfall in knowledge and understanding are documented and suggestions made for investigations to help alleviate these problems.

Cités Unies Developpement. (1990) Rapport, la Coopération Internationale d’Aide au Développement et les Collectivités Locales. Les acteurs, les instruments et les circuits de financement.

This discusses the importance of solidarity between communities and the role of an NGO, ‘Cités Unies Developpement’, and its programme of social and economic help to Third World cities.

CIWEM, Bailey R (ed) (1996) Water and Environmental Management in Developing Countries, Chartered Institute of Water and Environmental Management, sponsored by DFID (formerly ODA).

This book, aimed at water and environmental managers in developing countries, is in two parts. Part 1 contains up-to-date information on the environment including philosophy, politics, and social and economic factors; part 2 contains up-to-date information for solving practical problems.

Clift, R. (1995) Clean Technology - An Introduction. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, No.62, pp321-326.

This paper provides an introduction to the concept of Clean Technology, with particular reference to the collection and treatment of domestic and industrial wastes.

COAG (Council of Australian Governments) (1995) Water Allocations and Entitlements: A national framework for the implementation of property rights in water. Task Force on Council of Australian Governments, Occasional Paper No.1.

A number of themes have been investigated by working groups reporting to COAG on measures designed to improve the efficiency of sectors of the Australian economy. This report focuses on the clarification of property rights to water and recommends a national framework for their implementation. Other task forces have considered pricing reform, asset refurbishment, water allocation to the environment, trading arrangement in water, institutional reforms and community consultation and education.

CWC (1992) Guidelines for Sustainable Water Resources Development and Management. Central Water Commission (CWC), New Delhi, September 1992.

These guidelines are intended to help project authorities plan and manage water resources taking into account environmental concerns. They focus on methodologies for Environmental Assessment (EA) of water resources projects which can be easily transferred to developing countries.

DANIDA (1992) Water Supply and Sanitation. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Danida Sector Policies.

This describes the policies of the Danish International Development Assistance of the Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs in the water supply and sanitation sector ie. water supply, primarily for domestic use, in rural and urban areas; sanitation and sewerage services; health/hygiene promotion; water resources assessment and protection.

Deval, H. (1994) Lutte Contre la Désertification. Coopération Française en Afrique. Coopération française en Afrique.

This describes the fight against desertification in Africa and the support provided by French aid to support various demand-driven, village-based initiatives.

DFID (1995) Technical Note on Enhancing Stakeholder Participation in Aid Activities. Department for International Development, UK.

This technical note reviews and recommends methods of enhancing stakeholder participation. A guidance note on the how to do a Stakeholder Analysis is included.

DFID (1997) Evaluation Synthesis of Rural Water and Sanitation Project. White J., DFID Evaluation Department: Evaluation Report EV:596, London, UK.

This evaluation is a synthesis of six evaluation studies and one review from: CARE International in Sierra Leone; WaterAid in Uganda; Nepal Eastern Region Water Supply project; Madura Groundwater Irrigation project, Indonesia; Lesotho Village Water Supplies; and the Gurkha Welfare Trust project, Nepal. It summarises the consensus from research concerning the relationship between the prevalence of diseases associated with poor water and sanitation facilities and provision of services.

DFID (1997) Priorities for Irrigated Agriculture. Water Resources Occasional Paper No 1, London, UK.

This paper sets out the importance of irrigated agriculture to developing countries. It highlights the paradox that a serious decline in donor support for irrigation has occurred at the same time that water shortage, poverty and food security have become major international concerns. The paper promotes five priority themes: improved water use efficiency, enhanced productivity of small-scale smallholder schemes, an integrated approach to water use, capacity building and support for innovation.

DSE (1998) Global Water Politics: Co-operation for Transboundary Water Management. 1st Petersberg Round Table, International Dialogue Forum, Petersberg/Bonn, 3-5 March 1998, German Foundation for International Development.

This international forum drew up recommendations concerning the German Government’s position within the international debate on transboundary water management. The outcome of the meeting is presented as the Petersberg Declaration which provides recommendations for further actions regarding transboundary water management.

Dublin Statement (1992) International Conference on Water and the Environment: Development issues for the 21st century. 26-31 January 1992, Dublin, Ireland. The Dublin Statement and Report of the conference.

The Dublin Statement and Report of the Conference present the problems highlighted at the International conference on Water and Environment in Dublin, Ireland, and highlight the critical nature of the global water resources situation. The report identifies four guiding principle since regarded as the centrepiece of water-related activity.

EC (1991) EC Manual: The Integration of Women in Development. European Commission, Brussels.

The EC has developed a specific policy focusing on Women in Development (WID). The policy recognises the productive roles played by women and their contribution to economic growth, and is based on an evaluation of nine EDF-financed projects.

EC (1993) Environmental Procedures and Methodology Governing Lomé IV Development Co-operation Projects. European Commission, Brussels.

This manual describes a methodology for environmental assessment of Lomé IV development projects. It looks initially at the legal background before describing the various stages of an assessment from the initial screening through preliminary assessment up to a full Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) before describing the reviewing process and the need for monitoring.

EC (1997) Indicators of Sustainable Development. European Commission, Brussels.

Following on from the 1992 Rio de Janeiro declarations, which have been incorporated into the core of European Policy, the EC is creating a statistical information system through Eurostat to help in evaluating progress towards the 1992 Rio objectives of sustainable and balanced development. This report looks at the initial trials using 40 indicators.

EC (1997) EC Manual: Financial and Economic Analysis of Development Projects. European Commission, Brussels.

This manual looks at how financial and economic analysis can ensure that aid is planned and delivered as effectively as possible. It concentrates on how such analysis can inform the decision-making process throughout the project cycle, shedding light on how to estimate planned or actual effectiveness in attaining key objectives such as poverty reduction.

FAO (1989) Water Quality for Agriculture. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper No.29, Rome.

This paper provides guidance to farm and project managers, consultants and engineers in evaluating and identifying potential problems related to water quality. Possible restrictions to water use are discussed and management options presented which may assist in farm or project management planning and operation.

FAO (1995) Irrigation Management Transfer. Selected papers from the International Conference on Irrigation Management Transfer, Wuhan, China, 20-24 September 1994. FAO Water Report No.5, Rome.

The Irrigation Management Transfer conference was the first major international meeting to be held on this topic. The proceedings include a summary of ideas and experiences drawn from the conference papers. The papers address a number of issues including the reasons for management transfer, variations in management transfer approaches, and the effects of management transfer on irrigation performance.

FAO (1995) Reforming water resources policy: a guide to methods, processes and practices. Winpenny, J.T. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 52, Rome.

This guide was first written against the background of growing pressure on farmers to make more efficient use of irrigation water, to release more for other farmers, and to avoid conflicts and competition for the resource from potential users in other sectors. The report has a number of aims: to indicate the size and complexity of the water sector, to spell out the ramifications throughout the economy of water management, introduce some of the methods and processes involved in a water policy review, and illustrate how different countries have gone about such a review.

FAO (1995) Water Sector Policy Review and Strategy Formulation: a general framework. FAO Land and Water Bulletin 3, Rome.

This paper is an attempt to synthesise the FAO’s approach with that of the World Bank and the UNDP. It responds to a request from the Sub-Committee on Water Resources of the UN Administrative Committee for Co-ordination to these three agencies to prepare a joint guide on water resources policy review, reform, and strategy formulation. The report covers institutional and human resource issues, stakeholder participation, information systems, the role of economics, environmental and health considerations, and international issues.

FAO (1996) Guidelines for planning irrigation and drainage investment projects. FAO Investment Centre Technical Paper 11, Rome

The Guidelines are divided into two parts. The first part briefly discusses the main lessons learned in recent years and their implications for the project planning process. The second part describes the process itself, the roles of the borrowers, lenders and planning team and the activities and outputs expected. The remainder of the document presents checklists, which seek to be fully comprehensive and include both new and perennial issues in irrigation planning.

IADB (1996) Workshop on Strategies for Integrated Water Resources Management in Latin America and the Caribbean. San José, Costa Rica, May 6­7, 1996. Proceedings. Social Programs and Sustainable Development Department, Environment Division.

This report summarises the results of a Consultation Workshop on Strategies for Integrated Water Resources Management and the Caribbean. The Workshop was part of a multi-step action plan developed by the Bank to prepare its strategy for integrated water resources management.

IADB (1997) Integrated Water Resources Management Strategy Background Paper. Inter-American Development Bank, Social Programs and Sustainable development Department, Environment Division.

This draft strategy presents the intended approach of the IADB to water resources management. It is gives an overview of the water resources in Latin America and the Caribbean, stresses the need for an integrated approach, essentially calling for a change of paradigm in order to achieve sustainability. It presents the main focus for IADB investments.

ICID (1993) Environmental Checklist to Identify Environmental Effects of Irrigation, Drainage and Flood Control Projects. HR Wallingford for the International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage, Wallingford, UK.

A procedure for identifying environmental effects of new or existing projects, intended for use by engineers and planners who are non-specialists in the environmental sciences. The procedure includes practical guidance on its use and is supported by a range of tools for its application.

ICID (1997) Water: Economics, Management and Demand. Kay, M., Franks, T., Smith, L., Proceedings of the18th European Regional ICID Conference, E & FN Spon (pub), UK.

The papers presented at this International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage (ICID) conference focus primarily on the role of irrigation and drainage in the debate on water use as an economic good. They highlight experiences in both developed and developing countries in six areas: the value of water for irrigation; the value of drainage and flood control; the social and environmental value of water; paying for services; management systems; and policy, legal and institutional issues.

ICID (1997) Water: Economics, Management and Demand, Edited by Kay, M., Franks, T. and Smith, L. E & FN Spon, UK.

A collection of the papers presented at the International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage conference on ‘Water - an economic good?’ held in Oxford, UK, in September 1997.

IHE/UNDP (1991) A Strategy for Water Sector Capacity Building. IHE Report Series 24, Alearts, G.J. and Hartvelt, F.J.A., The Netherlands.

This book reports on the UNDP Symposium ‘A Strategy for Water Resources Capacity Building’, held in Delft, The Netherlands, 3-5 June 1991. The meeting dealt with two main challenges to water-related activities: the need for a greater use of comprehensive and integrated methods; and methods to address institutional weaknesses.

IIMI (1994) Chapter 3, Gender Issues and Water Issues in A Gender Perspective to Irrigation Management. IIMI Working Paper No.32, Zwarteveen, M.Z., Columbo, Sri Lanka.

Within a wider report on the role of gender within irrigation, this chapter deals in depth with the causes of the absence of gender in most irrigation management studies. It examines how male and female needs differ and proposes the use of tools for identifying gender considerations.

IIMI (1997) Impacts of Irrigation Management Transfer: A review of the Evidence. Research Report No.11, Vermillion, D.L., International Irrigation Management Institute, Columbo, Sri Lanka.

This report synthesises and evaluates the most significant evidence available to-date about the impacts of management transfer programmes on the financial viability of irrigation systems; the quality of irrigation operations and maintenance; the physical sustainability of irrigation infrastructure; agricultural and economic productivity; and the environment.

IRC (1985) Participation of Women in Water Supply and Sanitation. Technical Paper No. 22. International Water and Sanitation Centre, The Hague, The Netherlands.

The book aims to present a simplified framework for gender analysis which can be used in rapid participatory assessments and planning. It also gives an overview of developments at policy level on integrated water resources management, and aims to link this to gender analysis. Finally, it summarises and analyses the operationalisation of gender in drinking water and sanitation.

IRC (1993) Communication in Water Supply and Sanitation - a Resource Booklet. International Water and Sanitation Centre, The Hague, The Netherlands.

This booklet outlines the steps that need to be taken to develop and implement a communication strategy for the water and sanitation sector, based on the experiences of many people in many countries. Includes suggestions for advocacy at national and global level, and basic elements for messages on water supply and sanitation to priority target groups.

IRC (1994) Stir gently! The Way to Mix Hygiene Education with Water Supply and Sanitation. Marieke Boot, Paper No. 29. International Water and Sanitation Centre, The Hague, The Netherlands.

Methods for integrating hygiene education in water supply and sanitation programmes. Numerous programme examples are provided demonstrating changes of attitude, behaviour and practice relating to water and waste disposal; also of planning, organisation, implementation and evaluation of training in health education.

IRC (1997) Linking Technology Choice with Operation and Maintenance for Low-Cost Water Supply and Sanitation. Operation and Maintenance Working Group, Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council, WHO & International Water and Sanitation Centre, The Hague, The Netherlands.

This manual is designed to help planners and project staff in the selection of rural and low-income water supply and sanitation technologies. It is divided into two parts: Part 1: Operation and maintenance and technology choice: the technology selection process; the assessment of O&M implications. Part 2: Fact sheets: water supply technology (water sources, water lifting devices, power systems, water treatment, storage and distribution systems); low-cost sanitation technology.

IRC (1997) Water Supplies Managed by Rural Communities. Country Reports and Case Studies from Cameroon, Colombia, Guatemala, Kenya, Nepal and Pakistan. International Water and Sanitation Centre, The Hague, The Netherlands.

Community water management experiences and management reports, conclusions and lessons learned. This document is the result of a collective effort by six teams from organisations operating in the water supply and sanitation sectors in Cameroon, Colombia, Guatemala, Kenya, Nepal and Pakistan, carrying out a four-year research project on the role of community participation in the management of rural water supplies.

ISPAN (1993) Water Resources Policy and Planning. Towards Environmental Sustainability. Irrigation Support Project for Asia and the Near East (ISPAN).

This report is based on a study of environmental sustainability of water development and use. The study, conducted in four medium-sized cities and their surrounding agricultural areas, collected information on the extent to which water development and use were consistent with, or detrimental to, maintenance of the long-term adequacy and quality of water resources.

Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and Environment (1994) Conference Report: Ministerial Conference on Drinking Water and Environmental Sanitation, Noordwijk, March 1994. The Hague, The Netherlands.

This Conference report highlights changes to improve both public health and international co-operation. Based on the background papers of the Ministerial Conference, a series of three publications under the title ‘Water and Sanitation for All: A World Priority’ were prepared: 1) A Developing Crisis, 2) Achievements and Challenges, and 3) No More Business as Usual.

NEDA (1998) Water Supply and Sanitation in Developing Countries, Netherlands Development Assistance, Ministry of Foreign Affairs,

This document provides sector policy and guidelines for implementation of development co-operation. The report draws on experiences from past involvement in water and sanitation and highlights the key elements for success. Guidelines for implementation of policy focus on identification, assessment, implementation and evaluation in relation to aspects such as national policy, participation, environment, organisations, and monitoring.

ODA (now DFID) (1996) A Guide to Social Analysis for Projects in Developing Countries. HMSO, London, UK.

A guide for qualified social analysts - sociologists, anthropologists and human geographers - to help them apply their expertise in practical development work. The guide describes the functions and responsibilities of social analysts working in multi-disciplinary teams; and provides useful materials and an extensive bibliography.

ODA (now DFID) (1996) Water and NGOs, Workshop organised by WEDC on behalf of ODA, 10 June 1996.

The workshop aimed to explore how to expand community-based approaches and strengthen the role of NGOs working in the water sector. The report contains five papers which were presented at the workshop: 1) Overview of NGO involvement in the water sector; 2) ODA synthesis evaluation of rural water projects; 3) Technical and management issues; 4) Social issues; 5) Policy issues.

ODI (1991) Values for the Environment. Winpenny, J., Overseas Development Institute, London, UK.

This book deals with how environmental concerns can be taken into account in choosing and appraising projects. It sets out, for each of a number of representative sectors, a role for environmental economics, which is intended to be feasible, plausible and useful.

ODI (1994) Managing Water as an Economic Resource. Winpenny, J., Overseas Development Institute, London, UK.

This book emphasises the need for both suppliers and consumers to treat water as a scarce commodity with an economic value. Policies for the improved management of existing supplies are evaluated based on case studies from different countries.

ODI (1997) Understanding European Community Aid: Aid Policies, Management and Distribution Explained, A Cox et al, Overseas Development Institute, London.

This book was funded by the Evaluation Unit (DGVIII) of the European Community. It describes the institutions, policies and legal basis of EC aid, together with a detailed inventory which analyses all EC aid flows on a sectoral as well as geographical basis. The publication sets out to provide a baseline for the evaluations of EC aid as well as to serve as a public information document in its own right.

OECD (1987) Pricing of Water Services. Paris, France

The report assesses the contribution of economic techniques, in particular water pricing, for developing practical options for the efficient management of demand and supply of appropriate quality of water. The report presents guidelines for promoting conservation, reallocation and re-use of water resources through the combination of regulatory and economic instruments.

OECD (1992) Directory on Non-Governmental Environment and Development Organisations in OECD Countries. Paris, France.

This publication provides an index and directory of Non-governmental Organisations in OECD countries working in the field of environment and development. Over 300 NGOs are listed under categories such as country, regions, fields of activity, etc. Text is in English and French.

OECD/DAC. (1996) Shaping the 21st Century: The Contribution of Development Co-operation. Paris, France.

This sets out the recommendations for development co-operation among the OECD members and focuses on poverty elimination, setting a target to reduce absolute poverty by 50% by 2015.

Office International de L’Eau (1996) Conférence Euro-Méditerranéenne sur la Gestion de L’Eau. Marseille 25-26 Novembre 1996, France.

This conference was organised by the EU and France with the support of the city of Marseille on the management of water in the Mediterranean region.

Parey, V. P., (1993) DVWK Bulletin. Ecologically Sound Resources Management in irrigation, Berlin, Germany.

This booklet contains the reports presented at the 10th International DVWK Irrigation symposium, Ecologically Sound Resources Management in Irrigation held in 1993 in the framework of WASSER BERLIN 93. Three papers are relevant to water resources planning. These are: 1) Water Management and the Environment; 2) Water and Sustainable Development; 3) Water and Land Management Associations as a Tool of Resource Conservation.

Pearce, D. W. and Turner, R. K. (1990) Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment. Harvester Wheatsheaf, Herts, UK.

A grounding in the economics required to understand national, international and global environmental problems which methodically examines the much discussed concept of ‘sustainable development’. This discussion is set in the wider context of environmental and ethical values and concerns, including the implications of resource depletion and degredation for future generations and the special problems of the Third World. Rogers, P., (1993) Comprehensive Water Resources Management. A Concept Paper. The World Bank, Washington, USA.

This paper is a joint product of the Water and Sanitation Division, Infrastructure and Urban Development Department, and the Agricultural Policies Division, Agriculture and Rural Development Department, and is part of a larger effort to define a Bank water resources management policy. The report discusses new approaches that are needed to integrate water resource use among different users and different economic sectors.

SEI (1997) Comprehensive assessment of the freshwater resources of the world, Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden.

This was prepared for the United Nations Economic and Social Council as a key resource document for the UN General Assembly Special Session of June 1997 (UNCED 2). It includes a set of scientifically based background papers which discuss a range of key issues related to water quality and quantity.

SIDA/IRC (1994) Towards Better Water Resources Management: A catalogue of policies and strategies of external support agencies. Ref. Series 10, Viisscher, J. T. and Soresson, M., SIDA, Sweden.

A comprehensive review of the different water resources policies and strategies of donors.

SIDA (1996) A Gender Perspective in the Water Resource Management Sector. Publications on Water Resources No.6, SIDA, Sweden.

The book aims to further the development of awareness, commitment and capacity for working with a gender perspective in water resources management. The first part analyses the linkages between gender equality and water resources management; the second looks at ‘talking points’ to guide policy dialogue; and finally it provides guidance for mainstreaming gender in different parts of the planning cycle.

SIDA (1997) Ecological Alternatives in Sanitation, Proceedings from SIDA Workshop, Balingsholm, Sweden, 6-9 August 1997. Publications on Water Resources, No. 9, Department for Natural Resources and the Environment, SIDA, Sweden.

The purpose of this workshop was to widen the range of policy options in sanitation by presenting and discussing ecological alternatives in urban sanitation with special reference to the possibility of reusing human excreta, particularly urine, for agricultural purposes. Important aspects of ecological sanitation, case studies, background papers and recommendations are included.

UNCED (1992) Agenda 21, Chapter 18. Protecting the Supply and Quality of Water Resources.

In Chapter 18 of Agenda 21 over 270 recommendations are made for action, under seven main priority programme areas: 1) Ensuring the integrated management and development of water resources; 2) Assessing water quality, supply and demand; 3) Protecting water resource quality and aquatic ecosystems; 4) Improving drinking water supply and sanitation; 5) Ensuring sustainable water supply and use for cities; 6) Managing water resources for sustainable food production and development; 7) Assessing the impact of climate change on water resources.

UNCED (1994) Water and Health in Underprivileged Urban Areas, United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Sophia Antipolis, February 1994

This Conference looked primarily at how the commitments made at Rio de Janeiro in 1992 could be formulated into specific programmes with reference to urban underprivileged community health and water problems. Four perspectives for analyses were chosen: the role of institutions; community participation; appropriate technologies and know-how; financing and management.

UNCSD (1998) Strategic approaches to freshwater management, Report of the 6th Session of the United Nations Commission for Sustainable Development, New York.

This report is the culmination of a series of international events between July 1997 and April 1998 and presents recommendations for a programme for the further implementation of Agenda 21. The document summarises the findings of the Expert Group Meeting in Harare, Zimbabwe, in January 1998; the International Conference on Water and Sustainable Development, Paris, March 1998; and the Petersburg Round Table on Global Water Politics, Germany, March 1998.

UNDP (1990) Tools for Community Participation, L. Srinivasan. PROWESS/UNDP Technical Series, Involving Women in Water and Sanitation, New York.

The report looks firstly at how to start a community participation programme looking at planning a programme, organising and designing workshops and using simple daily evaluation techniques and activities.

UNDP/World Bank (1996) An evaluation of the UNDP-World Bank Water and Sanitation Program: a Forward-looking Assessment. Report of an Independent Team. World Bank, Washington, USA.

The evaluation team looked at capacity-building, promotion and support of sustainable investments, the use of alternative approaches and the learning process of the joint UNDP-World Bank Water and Sanitation Program.

UNECE (1993) Protection of Water Resources and Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Series No.1, UN Economic Commission for Europe, Geneva, Switzerland.

Based on the experiences gained with the implementation of the UNECE Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes, Helsinki, 1992. Part I provides guidelines on the ecosystem approach in water management; Part II relates to the water quality criteria and objectives; and Part III is on the prevention and control of water pollution from fertilisers and pesticides.

UNEP (1996) Proceedings from the UNEP workshop on Rapid Integrated River Basin Assessments. February 20-22, 1996, Stephenville, Texas. Hosted by Tarleton State University, USA.

This report describes the Rapid Integrated River Basin Assessment (RIRBA) process, which was developed at the workshop. The report describes the two phases of RIRBA: 1) collection and analysis of data; 2) development of policy scenarios and analysis of potential futures; followed by appendices, workshop hand-outs and summaries from conference presenters.

UNESCAP (1995) Integrated Water Resources Management in Asia and the Pacific. United Nations, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Water Resources Series No. 75, Bangkok, Thailand.

This report contains the proceedings of the Expert Meeting on the Implications of Agenda 21 for Integrated Water Management in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 13 to 15 September 1995. It is presented in four parts: 1) Report of the meeting; 2) Background papers presented by the ESCAP secretariat and a consultant; 3) Selected country papers submitted by the participants; 4) Selected papers submitted by representatives of international organisations and agencies.

UNESCAP (1997) Guidelines on Water and Sustainable Development: Principles and Policy Options. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. Water Resources Series No. 77, Bangkok, Thailand.

These Guidelines address all aspects of protection of freshwater resources outlined in Chapter 18 of Agenda 21, namely, legal aspects, water protection and conservation, water pollution prevention, groundwater protection and conservation, freshwater living resources, application of clean technology, and monitoring and surveillance of water bodies. The guidelines recognise that because there is increasing competition for finite water supplies on the global scale and a growing risk of water pollution, suitable policies and actions are needed to ensure sustainable development through an approach which integrates development and environmental objectives.

UNESCAP (1997) Guidebook to Water Resources, Use and Management in Asia and the Pacific. Volume One: Water Resources and Water Use. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. Water Resources Series No. 74, Bangkok, Thailand.

This report is a synthesis of data available in numerous publications concerning the Asian and Pacific region as a whole or for specific countries and areas within the region. The data concerns: physiography, climate, water resources, water quality and pollution, water availability patterns, water use patterns and water demand projections.

UNESCO (1987) Communication Strategies for Heightening Awareness of Water. Report No.2 of IHP II Project C1, Studies and reports in hydrology No.47, ed Sadler, B.S., UNESCO, Paris.

This report focuses on the need for recognising the relationships between water and socio-economic development. It reviews the need for communication, examines the problems and techniques of communication, and discusses means for heightening awareness among planners, decision-makers and the general public.

UNESCO (1991) Approaches to Integrated Water Resources Management in Humid Tropical and Arid and Semiarid Zones in Developing Countries. Maynard M. Hufschmidt and Janusz Kindler. UNESCO, Paris.

This report is the result of activities under two International Hydrological Programme projects, both concerned with development of methodologies for integrated water resources planning and management based on case studies. The main report is in four parts describing the planning and policy setting for water resources management, the conceptual statement for analysis, experiences with water resources management in developing countries, and a proposed management approach for 1990 to 2010.

UNESCO/WHO/UNEP (1996) Water Quality Assessments. Chapman, D. (ed), Geneva, Switzerland.

This book gives comprehensive advice on designing and setting up monitoring programmes to obtain valid data for water quality assessments in all types of freshwater bodies. Advice is given on the selection of variables to be measured in water, sediment and biota, concentrating particularly on current water quality issues in different parts of the world.

UNICEF. Waterfront., New York, USA.


This biennial publication of the UNICEF Water, Environment and Sanitation cluster contains news of significant international developments in water and sanitation, information exchange, and useful low-cost BWSS project and programme profiles from around the world.

UNICEF (1995) Strategies in Water and Environmental Sanitation. E/ICEF/1995/17, New York, USA.

The UNICEF 1995 policy document on water and sanitation, setting out the organisation’s strategies and approaches for promoting coverage of basic water and sanitation services within an environmentally sustainable framework, and promoting the necessary behavioural changes to realise health benefits, especially for children, from services.

WHO/FAO/UNEP (1991) Guidelines for Forecasting the Vector-bourne Disease Implications of Water Resources Development. PEEM Guideline Series No.2, PEEM Secretariat, Geneva, Switzerland.

These guidelines are aimed at anyone who wishes to make a rapid assessment of the health risks associated with a water development project in the tropics or sub-tropics at an early planning phase. The format is such that a minimum number of questions allow a knowledgeable person to obtain approximate answers based on existing information.

WHO (1992) Our Planet, Our Health: Report of the WHO Commission on Health and Environment, WHO, Geneva.

A comprehensive and practical study of the ways in which the environment interacts with public health in the development context. Includes chapters on food and agriculture, water, human settlements and urbanisation, and transboundary and international problems.

WHO (1993) Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, Volume 1: Recommendations, Geneva, Switzerland.

This sets out guideline values for a large number of water contaminants relevant to the quality of drinking water. The book also provides an explanation of how the guideline values should be applied, the criteria used in selecting the various chemical, physical, microbiological, and radiological contaminants considered, a description of the approaches used to derive the guideline values, and brief summary statements supporting the values recommended or explaining why no health-based guideline value is necessary at present.

WHO (1994) Financial Management of Water Supply and Sanitation A Handbook, Geneva, Switzerland.

This describes a range of financial principles and methods for improving the management of water supply and sanitation services of all types. It is aimed at decision-makers and shows how financial mechanisms, such as cost recovery, cash raising, and cost containment, can be used to ensure that services are financially sustainable and able to meet users’ needs.

WHO (1996) Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality. Volume 2: Health Criteria and Other Supporting Information, Geneva, Switzerland.

The book has 17 chapters presented in three parts. The first, on microbiological aspects, addresses the common and widespread health risks associated with the direct or indirect contamination of drinking-water with human or animal excreta, particularly faeces. Separate chapters review data on the health hazards posed by selected bacteria, viruses, protozoa, helminths, toxins from cyanobacteria, and nuisance organisms.

WHO/WSSCC/UNICEF (1996) (WHO/EOS/96.15) Water Supply and Sanitation Monitoring Report 1996; Sector Status as of 31 December 1994. Geneva, Switzerland.

This valuable publication was set up after the Water Decade and is issued every two years. It monitors progress on providing safe water supply and sanitation to the unserved population providing co-ordination for an international programme of data collection based on a set of well-defined and generally used terms to ensure high standards and comparable information.

WHO/WSSCC (1997) Sanitation Promotion Kit. Water Supply Sanitation Collaborative Council, WHO/EOS/97.12, Geneva, Switzerland.

This publication examines the need for a sanitation promotion kit looking not only at the present problems of sanitation but those likely to appear in the next century. The report examines ways of getting sanitation onto the political agenda and how to gain more effective co-operation within and between sectors. In subsequent sections the report examines best sanitation practices, looks at the needs and roles of various stakeholders and examines a number of case studies.

WMO/UNESCO (1991) Report on Water Resource Assessment, London.

A number of needs for improvement in water resource assessment were identified in the 1997 Mar del Plata Action Plan. This report discusses progress in the implementation of Mar del Plata Action Plan and presents a strategy for the 1990s.

WMO (1995) African Conference on Water Resources: Policy and Assessment. Report of the Conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 20-25 March 1995. World Meteorological Organisation and UN Economic Commission for Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

The objective of the conference was to to prepare a Strategy and Action Plan within the context of water resource assessment in Africa. Thematic areas include the economic challenges in relation to water scarity and stress, institutional arrangements for integrated water resource assessment, capacity building, and policy, strategy and action plans for water resource assessment. The report is divided in to two parts: I) Report of the Conference, II) African Water Resources Assessment Programme - Policy, Strategy, and Action Plan.

WMO/IADB (1996) Conference on Water Resources Assessment and management Strategies in Latin America and the Caribbean. San José, Costa Rica, 6-11 May 1996. Report of the Conference.

The objective of the conference was to prepare an Action Plan within the context of sustainable development, ensuring that integrated and comprehensive assessment and integrated management of water resources reflects the socio-economic needs of the country and its citizens and the preservation of the environment.

World Bank (1989) Sub-Saharan Africa from Crisis to Sustainable Growth. A Long Term Perspective Study, Washington, USA.

This report provides a long term perspective on the economy of Sub-Saharan Africa. Building on many studies, it assesses the policies and measures needed for Africa to achieve a sustained and sustainable improvement in well-being. The report highlights the fact that sound macroeconomic policies and an efficient infrastructure are not sufficient to transform African economies, but that major efforts are needed to strengthen the institutional framework within which development can take place.

World Bank (1992) Water Resources Institutions: Some Principles and Practices. World Bank Technical Paper No. 191. Frederiksen, H.D., Washington, USA.

This paper presents institutional principles found to be effective for the successful management of water resources. These principles are drawn from a range of physical and institutional settings where countries have shown positive results in addressing difficult water management issues.

World Bank (1993) A World Bank Policy Paper. Water Resources Management, Washington, USA.

The policy paper is a landmark statement of the World Bank’s policy on water, reflecting a co-ordinated view of several different strands in the Bank’s operations: irrigation, watershed management, flood control and hydropower, environmental protection, and drinking water and sanitation services. The paper admits problems in its past operations in these areas, causing vicious circles and unreliable services, unwillingness to pay, inadequate funding, and a further deterioration in services.

World Bank (1993) Balancing Water Demands with Supplies. The Role of Management in a World of Increasing Scarcity. World Bank Technical Paper No. 189, Frederick, K.D., Washington, USA.

This paper deals with the increasingly important topic of how to balance waterdemands with supplies. It examines the experience of OECD countries in influencing the behaviour of water users, and draws lessons from attempts to manage demand by imposing water use regulations and employing economic incentives.

World Bank (1993) Water Resources Management in Asia, Volume 1, Main Report. World Bank Technical Paper 212, Frederiksen, H.D., Berkoff, J., and Barber, W. , Washington, USA.

This report presents a management framework to address the demand for water in Asia, which has been caused by rapid population growth and economic development. Ways of improving planning and long-term management are suggested, and a general strategy for future World Bank lending and involvement is described.

World Bank (1994) A Strategy for Managing Water in the Middle East and North Africa. Directions in Development, Washington, USA.

This booklet highlights the implications of a new Bank policy for the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) regions, where water is of central concern to life. It proposes a practical step-by-step approach to tackling water resources problems in a co-ordinated and sustainable manner.

World Bank (1994) A Guide to the Formulation of Water Resources Strategy. World Bank Technical Paper No. 263. le Moigne, G., Subramanian, A., Xie, M., and Giltner, S., Washington, USA.

This report, aimed at policy makers in the developing world, addresses the issue of increasing the capacity to manage water resources through the process of strategy formulation. The report incorporates the elements of holistic water resources management, institutional and human resources, information systems, stakeholder participation, economics, environment and health.

World Bank (1994) Principles and Practices for Dealing with Water Resources Issues. World Bank Technical Paper No. 233, Frederiksen, H.D., Berkoff,J., and Barber, W., Washington, USA.

This report identifies the common issues that countries face when attempting to regulate, plan and manage their water resources. The issues are grouped into four main categories: Institutions; Resource Planning and Long-Term Management; Real-Time Management of Water Resources; and Financial Aspects of Water Resources Activities.

World Bank (1996) Measuring Economic Benefits for Water Investments and Policies. World Bank Technical Paper 338, Young, R.A., Washington, USA.

Reviews and assesses the concepts and methods for estimating the economic benefits of investment and allocation decisions involving water, and describes the operational uses of these methods.

World Bank (1996) African Water Resources. Challenges and Opportunities for Sustainable Development. World Bank Technical Paper No. 331. Africa Technical Department Series, Washington, USA.

This document proposes that water resources management in African countries should be integrated, cross-sectoral, and based on catchment area. It recommends key strategic interventions for African consideration and discusses the operational implications for the World Bank.

World Bank (1997) User Organisations for Sustainable Water Services. World Bank Technical Paper 354, Subramanian, A., Jagannathan, N.V. and Meinzen-Dick, R., Washington, USA.

Water users’ organisations are one example of community participation at work in the sectors of irrigation, drinking water supply, and sanitation. This paper looks at the conditions under which these organisations are most effective in managing water systems. It identifies key external factors and internal structures for sustainable user associations, as well as the conditions for partnership between government agencies and the associations.

World Bank (1997) International Agreements. Fifth World Bank Conference on Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development. Washington, USA.

This meeting drew together leading scientists, government ministers, economists, lawyers and environmentalists to look both at immediate environmental concerns and the need for closer ties between the world’s scientific, economic and legal communities. While many countries have signed environmental treaties such as the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and other agreements governing seas and oceans, forests and hazardous waste, few signatories have so far carried out their legal obligations.

World Bank (1997) Performance Monitoring Indicators Handbook. World Bank Technical Paper No.334, Mosse, R. and Sontheimer, L.E., Washington, USA.

This handbook introduces and supplements notes developed by World Bank staff on suggested performance monitoring indicators for each of the main sectors in which the Bank is active. The notes provide a framework for use by task managers, borrowers, and project implementation units inside the Bank in analysing the relationship between objectives and monitorable outcomes and impacts.

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